A new review study in the United Kingdom has revealed that interventions such as awareness campaigns were found to play a significant role in increasing breast self-examination and enhancing the number of women undergoing screening procedures for breast cancer.
Breast cancer is a malignancy of the lining of milk ducts (ductal carcinoma) or the lobules of the breast (lobular carcinoma). Globally, breast cancer in women of developing countries is a major public health concern as it causes mortality and morbidity. Therefore, comprehensive intervention strategies are needed for reducing mortality of breast cancer and improving the quality of life. Generally, different intervention methods of screening, diagnosis and treatment play a key role in reducing the onset and prevention of breast cancer. A diagnostic mammography is one of the screening methods that can potentially increase the early detection of breast cancer and provide a gateway for effective treatment methods. A review study by Lusher and co-researchers at the School of Psychology,London was carried out for understanding the potential contribution of interventions for breast cancer. This information, related to public health screening awareness of breast cancer, was published in the Journal of Health Psychology, 2017.
From a period between October 2012 and February 2013, a study was performed by scientists for understanding the effect of screening interventions on breast cancer in women. A review on breast cancer was carried out by analyzing academic, peer-reviewed literature found through an exhaustive search using the British Nursing Index (BNI), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Embase, Medline and PsycINFO databases. Researchers gathered information from breast cancer literature information on female humans of all age groups. Researchers identified 867 articles related to interventions of breast cancer awareness and breast self-examination (BSE). Of these articles, 14 full-length articles contained information on breast cancer awareness interventions and their impact on BSE behaviours and enhanced breast cancer screening attendance. Interestingly, there were only five studies representing breast screening uptake while nine studies reported on Promoting Early Presentation (PEP) interventions. In addition, the various methodologies adopted for the research studies belonged to randomized control design (n=5), case control exploratory design (n=1) and cohort designs (n=7) of specific populations. After reviewing the studies, researchers determined that intervention programs increased the likelihood that individuals would undergo BSE and enhance the chance of undergoing screening for breast cancer.
Therefore, this review provided a clear insight on breast cancer interventions and the key role they play in providing awareness, knowledge and adoption of screening procedures for early diagnosis. This will, in turn, reduce the mortality and morbidity rates of breast cancer in women. Furthermore, various educational programmes, campaigns and training would be effective in controlling breast cancer mortality.
Written By: Manche Santoshi, PhD