July 12, 2017:
(1) (1813) French physiologist Claude Bernard is born. He was one of the first to suggest the idea of using blind experiments, in order to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations in clinical research studies.
(2) (1849) Canadian physician William Osler is born. He was one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital.
(3) (1863) French physician, bacteriologist, and immunologist Albert Calmette is born. He developed the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis.

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